“Microteaching is defined as a system of controlled practice that makes it possible to concentrate on specified teaching behaviour and to practice teaching under controlled conditions.” – D.W. Allen & A.W. Eve (1968).
Introduction: Concept Of Micro-Teaching
Microteaching is a scaled-down, simulated teaching encounter designed for the training of both pre-service or in-service teachers. Its purpose is to provide teachers with the opportunity for the safe practice of an enlarged cluster of teaching skills while learning how to develop simple, single-concept lessons in any teaching subject. Microteaching helps teachers improve both content and methods of teaching and develop specific teaching skills such as questioning, the use of examples and simple artefacts to make lessons more interesting, effective reinforcement techniques, and introducing and closing lessons effectively. Immediate, focused feedback and encouragement, combined with the opportunity to practice the suggested improvements in the same training session, are the foundations of the microteaching protocol.
The Role Of Micro-Teaching In Pre-Science Service Teacher Program In Nigeria
Microteaching was first used in medicine at Stanford University in the 1960s to promote the quality of students and then it was applied to teacher training for the same purpose (He; and Yan, 2011). Gorgen (2003) states that pre-service can experience real teaching situations with microteaching, and they have the opportunities to transfer their teaching knowledge into practice. Thus, it can be said that microteaching can provide the possibility of forming a trial situation for teaching activities. In micro teaching pre-service teachers find opportunities to develop skills to prepare lesson plans, chose teaching goals, take student’s attention, speak in front of a group, ask questions, managing time effectively, and assessment techniques(Abdulwahab, 2005). In this way, pre-service teachers improve their classroom management skills. It provides expert supervision and a constructive feedback and above all, it provides for repeated practice without adverse consequences to the teacher or his students (Ananthakrishnan, 1993). The microteaching practices improve both students and teachers self-confidence and the teaching skills are emphasized (Sen, 2009; Sen, 2010).
Microteaching is an excellent way to build up skills and confidence, to experience a range of lecturing/tutoring styles and to learn and practice giving constructive feedback. Microteaching gives instructors an opportunity to safely put themselves “under the microscope” of a small group audience, but also to observe and comment on other people’s performances. As a tool for teacher preparation, microteaching trains teaching behaviours and skills in small group settings aided by video-recordings. In a protected environment of friends and colleagues, teachers can try out a short piece of what they usually do with their students, and receive a well-intended collegial feedback. A microteaching session is a chance to adopt new teaching and learning strategies and, through assuming the student role, to get an insight into students’ needs and expectations. It is a good time to learn from others and enrich one’s own repertoire of teaching methods.
Microteaching is an organized method of practice teaching which involves a small group of preceptors/instructors who observe each other teach, provide feedback and discuss with one another the strengths of their presentations and potential areas for improvement.
Microteaching is so called since it is analogous to putting the teacher under a microscope so to say while he is teaching so that all faults in teaching methodology are brought into perspective for the observers to give a constructive feedback. It eliminates some of the complexities of learning to teach in the classroom situation such as the pressure of length of the lecture, the scope and content of the matter to be conveyed, the need to teach for a relatively long duration of time (usually an hour) and the need to face large numbers of students, some of whom are hostile temperamentally.
Microteaching also provides skilled supervision with an opportunity to get a constructive feedback. To go back to the analogy of the swimmer, while classroom teaching is like learning to swim at the deeper end of the pool, microteaching is an opportunity to practice at the shallower and less risky side.
Microteaching makes the teacher education program, more purposeful, goal oriented and helps to decide common objectives for the program. It provides individualized training with more realistic evidence to students. Which enables them to develop competency in using specific teaching skills in view of their unique needs.
It provides a democratic type of behaviour among faculty members and student-teachers.
It provides a facility of supervision which is not critical on the threatening type but is of a helpful and suggestive type, which equip them for the transition to school teaching. It is a system of controlled practice that makes it possible to concentrate on specific teaching behaviour and to practice teaching under controlled conditions.
This way Microteaching is a teacher education technique which allows teachers to apply clearly defined teaching skills to carefully prepared lessons in planned series to five to ten minutes encounters with a small group of real students, often with an opportunity to observe the result on videotape.
Assumptions Of Micro Teaching
Microteaching can reduce the complexities of education. It simplifies the study of interaction between the teacher and the students
It can develop teaching skills. It provides an opportunity for integration of theory and practice. Specific skills can be developed
It is completely an individualized training programme. It is a successful technique for individual training. It facilitates continuity in the training of the teachers
It is a real teaching. Micro-teaching technique is useful for both pre-service and in-service teachers
It can control the practice by feedback. Self-evaluation is possible with tape recorder or videotape
Feedback can be provided by various means, such as criticism by a teacher, preparing video film of the lesson, etc. There is provision for immediate and effective feedback
Its objectives can be written more clearly and specifically
Its use helps in the research work related to classroom teaching
Precautions in micro-teaching application
Clarity of objectives is a must.
Micro-lesson plan should be prepared for one skill only at a time.
Delivering model lessons is essential.
Before teaching the student-teacher must prepare his micro-lesson plan.
Substantial suggestions should also accompany criticism in order to improve the teaching skill of the student-teachers.
- ALLEN, D.W. et.al. Micro-teaching – A Description. Stanford University Press, 1969.
- ALLEN, D.W, RYAN, K.A. Micro-teaching Reading Mass.: Addison _Wesley, 1969.
- GREWAL, J.S., R. P. SINGH. “A Comparative Study of the Effects of Standard MT With Varied Set of Skills Upon General Teaching Competence and Attitudes of Pre-service Secondary School Teachers.” In R.C. DAS, et.al. Differential Effectiveness of MT Components, New Delhi, NCERT, 1979.
- PASSI, B.K., Becoming Better Teachers. Baroda: Centre for Advanced Study in Education, M. S. University of Baroda, 1976.
- Teaching Profession In Nigeria