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A classroom is often an apartment in the institution (school) where teaching and learning take place. A classroom could as well be a room set out anywhere for the purpose of teaching and learning. Management is the process or practice of controlling a given people or place under one’s care.
Classroom management: It is all the necessary techniques that teachers need to adopt in order to enhance effective classroom teaching. It is a term mostly used by teachers to describe the process of ensuring that classroom lessons are done well and coordinated despite disruptive behaviour by students. These aspects of teaching process are possibly the most difficult aspect of teaching for many teachers because classes are often full of fast, slow and average learners as well as the recalcitrant learners. Therefore a good teacher should manage them accordingly. When a teacher loses control of his or her classroom it becomes more difficult for them to regain that control.
Effective classroom management involves clear communication of behaviour and academic expectations as well as a cooperative learning environment. Douglas Brooks (1985) as a teacher you need to have planned your teaching, organize their activities on the first day of school consistent with the emerging needs of the students. A teacher should go into the classroom with the following mindset to draw the students’ attention:
Am I welcome?
What are we going to do today?
Am I in the right class?
Is the teacher interested in me?
What are the rules for the classroom?
What are the goals, instructional methods and assessment
What are we expected to do tomorrow?
Will the teacher answer a question that I have after class?
A middle-class teacher is supposed to organise the first day activities in the following sequence:
Personally greet students
Organize the sitting setting in the class
Introduce rules in your class for students to adhere to (entry, listening to me while teaching, raising hands before asking or answering questions, going in and coming out of my class while the lesson is on is prohibited
Describe class goal, instructional method and how you will grade them after the lesson
Preview of next lesson and finally
Assessment after class.
As a teacher, you tend to meet all these needs in your classroom management style with specific activities to communicate competence and academic expectations. Classroom management is an opposite link to issues of motivation, discipline, and respect. When a teacher attempts to guide students towards success by helping them see how their effort pays off in the classroom, it creates an environment where students are successful as a result of their effort. in creating this type of environment students are much more likely to want to do well and it transforms a classroom into a community of well behaved and self-directed learner.
APPROACHES TO CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT:
CORPORAL PUNISHMENT: It is one of the ways used in controlling disruptive behaviour. It is now no longer fashionable but it’s still advocated in some context.
ROTE DISCIPLINE: this is otherwise known as repetition. It is a negative sanction used for behaviour management.
PREVENTATIVE TECHNIQUES: can be seen as creating a community with mutual respect between teacher and student. It is also a technique that involves strategic use of praise and rewards to inform students behaviour rather than as a means of controlling student behaviour. Fair rules are established and students are given frequent and consistent feedback regarding their behaviour.
GOOD BEHAVIOUR GAME: These entails the access to a reward or losing a reward at the end of the class. It also leads to asking questions to develop the student skill and create a good relationship between teacher and students.
DISCIPLINE WITH DIGNITY: it is a flexible approach to effective school and classroom management. With a strong focus on developing responsibility, it leads to improving student behaviour through responsible thinking, mutual respect and shared decision-making.
POSITIVE CLASSROOM: it has to do with the teachers regards on students, the spiritual, physical, instructional and managerial dimensions. How they set up a classroom, it shows the skill of the teacher.
CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT AS A PROCESS
Evertson and Weinstein describe classroom management as the action taken to create an environment that supports and facilitates academic and social-emotional learning. To achieve these teachers must
Be supportive and caring to students for effective teaching.
A teacher must organize instructions for students to access learning
Group students by giving them tasks in order to encourage student abilities.
Establish rules and routine
CLASSROOM AS TIME MANAGEMENT: the goal of this according to Kauchak and Eggen is not only to maintain but to optimize students learning thus, they divided the class into four categories:
ALLOCATED TIME: It is a total time allocated for a given teacher, he or she should be able to manage his given time for teaching, learning and routine classroom procedures e.g English 9.50-10:30, Mathematics 1:15 – 2:00 pm.
INSTRUCTIONAL TIME: It is a time for a teacher after teaching and learning must have taken place. The teacher may spend two or three minutes taking attendance.
ENGAGED TIME: these time students are participating actively in learning activities asking and responding to question, classroom exercises, preparing skit and presentations etc.
COMMON MISTAKES IN CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
In an effort to maintain order in classrooms, teachers sometimes the make problem worse. Trying to make order some teachers tends to shout at a student in a wrong manner to show who they are in the classroom; showing position they occupy, it is better to improvise a better means to manage that situation at that given time.
Inconsistency in expectations, teachers must be consistent in their expectations and consequences to ensure that the student understands that rules will be enforced. Teachers should be mindful of the kind of issues they handle pertaining student behaviour in the classroom. However, they should communicate expectations to students clearly and efficiently.
- Usman, U. Manu. An introduction to Curriculum Design: Theory and Practice. (The Teacher’s Perspectives)
- Goodman, Libby (1999). Time and learning in the special education classroom. Albany, N.Y: States University of New York Press.
- Delpit, Lisa. Other people’s Children: Culture and Conflicts in the Classroom. New York: The New Press, 1995.