Admission into NSUK School of Postgraduate Studies 2019/2020

Applications are invited from suitably qualified candidates for admission into various Postgraduate programmes of the Nasarawa State University, Keffi (NSUK).


  • Only Courses available for the session are advertised and as such candidates are advised to select courses available in this advertisement.
  • Candidates are advised to PRINT out the advertisement and STUDY thoroughly before COMMENCING the application procedure online.


Ph.D. Degree Programmes:

These are available to holders of M.A; M.Ed.; M.Sc. and LL.M degrees, with a minimum of 4.00 Cumulative Grade Point Average CGPA or equivalent 60% score in their academic Master degree programmes. A PhD degree programme runs for a minimum period of six (6) semesters and a maximum period of ten (10) semesters. Relevant courses will be taken for the PhD full-time studies where prescribed and a Thesis is required at the end of the PhD programme.

M.Phil /PhD. Degree Programmes:

Candidates who score less than 4.0 CGPA or equivalent 60% score in M.A., M.Ed., M.Sc., LL.M. can apply for admission into the Master of Philosophy (M.Phil/PhD) degree programme. The M.Phil/PhD degree programme is available only to full-time candidates. It runs for a minimum period of two (2) semesters and a maximum period of four (4) semesters. Candidates in this category are eligible for conversion to PhD. To be eligible for conversion for the PhD programme, candidates are expected to score not less than 4.00 CGPA at the end of the first session.

Master Degree Programmes:

M.A., M.Ed., M.Sc., LL.M. degrees run for a minimum period of 4 semesters and a maximum period of 6 semesters for full-time candidates; a minimum period of 6 semesters and a maximum period of 8 semesters for part-time candidates. All Master Degree Programmes are by coursework. This is in addition to a research report in the form of a Dissertation or Research project. HND with PGDs at upper credit may be acceptable.

Postgraduate Diploma Programmes:

Postgraduate Diploma degrees are available to candidates with a Third class (honours) degree and Higher National Diploma (HND) with a minimum of lower credit or its equivalents. The Diplomas run for a minimum period of 2 semesters and a maximum period of 4 semesters for full-time candidates or a minimum period of 4 semesters and a maximum period of 6 semesters for part-time candidates.

General information

The Postgraduate session for Postgraduate programmes is two (2) semesters, commencing in October and ending in September of the following year, starting from the date of first registration.


General Requirements:

  • All Certificates shall be available at the point of purchasing the application form, including the National Youth Service Corp DISCHARGE CERTIFICATE OR EXEMPTION CERTIFICATE.
  • Candidates are expected to submit their application forms online.
  • Transcripts of Academic Records should be forwarded to the Secretary, School of Postgraduate Studies. The Postgraduate School will not be held liable for any misdirected transcript, please.
  • All candidates must have 5 O/L Credit passes, including English Language and Mathematics.
  • Applicants for the Master degree programmes who are graduates of Narasawa State University, Keffi and other recognized Universities must have a minimum of Second Class Honours Degree (Lower Division) and must be applying for programmes in which they have their first degrees. However, applicants with Second Class Honours Degree (Lower Division) and those with higher classes of degrees seeking admissions into programmes outside those in which they have their first degrees may be admitted, provided they satisfy Senate requirements. All Candidates shall apply early for their official Bachelor’s degree transcript to be sent to the Secretary, School of Postgraduate Studies, before the expiration of the deadline.
  • Applicants for the Postgraduate programmes will be subjected to written assessment (qualifying examination) irrespective of the class of degree obtained.

Application Fees 

Application fee for all programmes is N20,000.

Dates and Venues of Qualifying Examination 

A qualifying examination for all applicants seeking admissions into Postgraduate degree programmes will hold on Saturday 17th August, 2019 at 8:30am prompt for all Academic programmes (Ph.D, M.Sc, M.A, LLM, M.Ed) and Saturday August 24th 2019 at 8:30am prompt for Professional Programmes (MPA, MBA, MPP, MLG, MERM, MAF, MEPM) and all Postgraduate Diplomas in the following venues:

  • Faculties of Administration, Arts, Law, Natural & Applied Sciences, Social Sciences – Faculty Complex.
  • Faculty of Education – Assembly hall
  • Faculty of Environmental Science – 1000 seat auditorium 
  • Faculty of Agriculture – 1000 seat auditorium
  • Institute of Education – Assembly hall 
  • Institute of Governance & Development Studies – SPGS

Please note:

August 17th & 24th 2019 are for qualifying examinations as there will be no formal letters of invitation to candidates for the qualifying examination. This advertisement will serve as an invitation.

Method of Application:

Application forms are to be completed online and will close on Thursday, 15th August 2019. Successful candidates will be notified by e-mail. Applicants can visit our website: for details of available programmes or contact email: [email protected] for enquiries.

Bala I. Ahmed II



The Nigerian economy has been undergoing a series of economic problems over the years now. The nature of the problem can best be understood by looking at the four key aspects of the economy such as the level of employment; the stability of prices; external equilibrium (balance of payment position); growth and development of the economy over time. The above indicators have shown that the Nigerian economy is not in very good shape, especially under the various military regimes and the civilians as well. The question that readily comes to mind is what have been the causes of the economic problems in Nigerian for such a long period of time. This term paper tries to analysis and provides possible solutions to the economic problems in Nigeria. 


Nigeria economy was faced with serious economic challenges immediately after the oil boom in late 1970s to early 1980s. prior to this period Nigeria economy after her independent was basically gaining huge amount from the importation of agricultural goods and later after the discovery of oil which became her major export earn much revenue to the government, this promopted the then president (Gen. Gowon) declare that Nigeria economy has sufficient money but spending of such money is her major problem. Economic problems in this country continue to be the focus of successive regime. The civilian administration under Alh – Aliyu Shehu Shagari introduced the economic stabilization measures in 1982. General Muhammed Buhari’s administration introduced the war against indiscipline. 

Despite all the various policies introduced by governments to revamp the economy, the economy remained depressed by 1985 as foreign exchange earnings continued its downward trend leading to a worsening of the deficit in the external debt burden, devaluation of naira, serious supply shortage and gross under utilization of industrial capacity and misallocation of resources (Ochojele, cited in Bawa 1990:4). This led to the ignorant debate on the international monetary fund (IMF) loan by the General Ibrahim Badamasi Babangidas intellectuals on whether or not Nigeria should accept the loan. 

To solve the problem, the government of General Ibrahim Babangida introduced an economic recovery programme supported by IMF and World Bank. 

The central philosophy of SAP is that government intervention in the economy is minimal to economic growth and that a market forces (demand and supply) should be allowed to operate freely to determine resource allocation. 


The Nigeria economy has been undergoing economic problem for over years now, the causes of the Nigerian economic crisis can be broadly grouped into two: 

Conventional causes of Nigeria economic problems 

Many factors have been identified as been responsible fro the conventional economic problem in Nigeria. These conventional causes include the following; 

  1. Colonial and non – colonial legacy: that Nigeria is still suffering from colonial hang-over is not in doubt. This has no small measure fuelled the crisis that the economy has suffered from over the years. For instance, after Nigeria political independence one would have expected the country to have a homemade economic development policy suitable for the socio-cultural norms and value system of the society, but these were not forthcoming. Instead, the country tenaciously held to the colonial masters’ ideologies and value systems. This has not helped the economy at all. 
  2.  Improper management of the economy: in Nigeria successive government failed to properly manage the petroleum and other human natural resources available in the country. Indeed, the transformation of the economy during the oil – boom era was imperative. However, rather than investing in self – financing capital projects, the leaders then went on spending – spree. Constructing gigantic structures, hosting international jamborees like FESTAC (Black Festival of Arts and Culture), doubling of workers salaries (Udoji Salary Award), Etc. indeed there was confusion between income and wealth before you know what has hit the nation, the fortunes from oil dwindled due to drastic fall of oil revenue especially since the late 1970s and early 1980s.
  3. Bottlenecks and production rigidities in almost all sectors of the economy: all the sectors of the Nigerian economy are characterized by bureaucratic bottlenecks and production rigidities. For instance, the financial system is underdeveloped. Until very recently. I.e. 2006 when the sector was overhauled through some financial reform policy of minimum recapitalization by the banking sector. The industrial sector suffered from high-interest rate gross underutilization of capacity and assembly type industrial culture.   

Non – Conventional causes of Nigeria economic problems 

Some factors have been identified as being responsible for the unconventional economic problems in Nigeria. Some of these include; 

  1. Poor work ethics and faulty salary structure: in Nigeria, there exist non–challant attitude towards government work service. This is usually attributed to a very faulty salary structure indeed in Nigeria. Public servants are seriously underpaid or their salaries held for several months without payment. All these no doubt fuelled people’s very poor work ethics since they have to find ways of making ends meet, until May 1999 when there appeared a little sigh of relief. 
  2. Absence of the role of religion, indiscipline and corruption: the near absence of the role of religion in public-private life of the leaders and the followers has no doubt fuelled the economic problems. In the past, Nigerians were God-fearing and highly disciplined in all ramifications. Those were the good old days when the socio-cultural norms and the values systems were upheld in high dignity. There was no cut-throat competition for wealth acquisition as obtained today. The syndrome of get–rich–quick has made people throw caution to the winds, hence get involved in looting the government treasury and other forms of corrupt practices. All these have helped in fuelling the economic problems, until the new democratic dispensation that introduced laws to curb the menace.  I.e. the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), and the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC).        

Objectives of the SAP in Nigeria  

The broad objective of SAP in Nigeria is to alter and restructure the pattern of production and consumption of the economy and also to eliminate price distortions and heavy reliance on oil and imports. However, the specific objectives are: 

  1. To restructure and diversify the productive base of the economy in order to reduce dependence on the petroleum sector and on imports. 
  2. To achieve fiscal and balance of payment viability. 
  3. To lay the basis for sustainable and non – inflationary growth and
  4. To lessen the dominance of unproductive investment in the public sector and improve the growth potential of the private sector. 

Strategies of SAP in Nigeria  

The above objectives were supposed to be achieved through the following objectives: 

  1. The adoption of a realistic exchange rate for the naira through the foreign exchange market. 
  2. Reduction of complex administrative controls in the process of adopting an appropriate pricing policy. 
  3. Further rationalization and restructuring of public sector expenditures and customs tariffs. 

Assessment of SAP in Nigeria  

This section attempts an assessment of SAP by analyzing how far the set objectives of the programme have been achieved using the strategies of the programme. 

Diversification of the productive base of the economy.  

It is evident that the contribution of the agricultural sector to the national economy has increased moderately since the introduction of SAP but it is also a known fact that developments in the Nigerian economy have continued to depend on the international market for crude petroleum. This objective is far from raised despite the current democratic government’s commitment towards revamping the agricultural sector, especially the rice and cassava project. 

Achieving balance of payment viability. 

Deficit budgeting has become seriously uncontrollable under the various military regimes for example between 1985 and 1991, budget deficit rose from 2.4% to 71% of GDP. According to the CBN report, the 1992 budget had projected a surplus of appropriately #2billion. But the same budget was already in deficit by September, 1992. the fiscal and financial indiscipline of the federal government is expressed in some of its since 1986 the good intentioned policies like mass mobilization for social justice and economic recovery (MAMSER), Directorates of food , roads and rural infrastructures (DFRRI), national directorate of employment (NDE) because avenues for personal enrichment. This has had a lot of implications on deficit budgeting since the inception of SAP. 

Laying the basis for a sustainable non – inflationary or minimal inflationary growth. 

The problem of inflation since the inception of SAP is indeed a real one. It is needless to mention here that the level of inflation between 1986 to may 1999 adversary affected economic recovery efforts. There are essentially two reasons for the persistence of inflation in recent years. 

  1. The increase in the cost of production (especially interest rate, transport etc). According to the CBN (1988), the expansionary monetary and fiscal policies pursued during the period also affected the price of most commodities. 
  2. The other reason for the upward trend in the price level is the depreciation of the naira exchange rate (Agua, 1990). 

Attempts at reducing the participation of the public sector and making it efficient. 

This is conducted through privatization and commercialization of public enterprises however, increasing the strength of the private sector to enable it to provide economic leadership to continue to elude the economy. Though under the current democratic dispensation, the privatization exercise has recorded some success story, especially in the telecommunication sector. 

Why SAP has recorded minimal success story in Nigeria 

  1. Lack of political will 
  2. High cost of agricultural inputs 
  3. Low rate of capacity utilization in the manufacturing sector.
  4. Poor management of foreign exchange 


Source of data collection included secondary source, the secondary source included library research, by way of sourcing for materials through text books from the above data, to verify if the objectives of SAP are been reached. The chi – square techniques was use to analyze the data from the distributed questionnaires.   

Chi-square (X2) =   ∑ (O-E)2  



 O = observed value and  

   E = Expected value 

Therefore chi-square test was used to evaluate whether or not the expected result was realized. 


Ho; Structural Adjustment prograame has not significance impact on the Nigeria economic problems.  

H1; Structural Adjustment prograame has significance impact on the Nigeria economic problems.  

Contingency Table:  

YES 20 28     31 23 102 
NO 40 32 29 37 138 
TOTAL 60 60 60 60 240 

Source: Own computation, 2012 

Computation of expected frequency (Fe); 

Fe1-1 = 102*60 = 25.5                        Fe2-1 = 138*60 = 34.5 

    240                                                    240                      

Fe1-2 = 102*60 = 25.5                       Fe2-2 = 138*60 = 34.5 

             240                                                  240 

Fe1-3 = 102*60 = 25.5                         Fe2-3 = 138*60 = 34.5 

    240                                                    240 

Fe1-4 = 102*60 = 25.5                       Fe2-4 = 138*60 = 34.5 

             240                                                  240 

Table 2: Chi-square (X2) computation table 

Cell Fo Fe Fo -Fe (Fo – Fe)2    (Fo-Fe)2         Fe 
1-1 20 25.5 -5.5 30.25 1.186 
2-1 40 34.5 5.5 30.25 0.877 
1-2 28 25.5 2.5 6.25 0.245 
2-2 32 34.5 -2.5 6.25 0.181 
1-3 31 25.5 5.5 30.25 1.186 
2-3 29 34.5 -5.5 30.25 0.877 
1-4 23 25.5 -2.5 6.25 0.245 
2-4 37 34.5 2.5 6.25 0.181 
Total      4.978 

Source: own computation, 2012 

:. X2c = 4.978 

The critical value of X2 is obtained as: 

X20.05, df = (2-1) (4-1) 

X2t =X20.05, df =3 

One tail test  

X2t = 7.81 

Two tail test  

X2t = 9.35 

Interpretation of results 

Since X2c = 4.978 < X2t for both one and two tail test therefore, we accept the null hypothesis (H0) and reject the alternative hypothesis concluding that Structural Adjustment prograame has not significance impact on the Nigeria economic problems.  



From study so far the objectives of SAP are far from been realized. Nigeria has been a mixed economy, the government should create a conducive environment with infrastructural facilities for the private sector to strive. Emphases should be laid on agricultural exportable goods for the balance of payment equilibrium. 


To achieve the broad objective of SAP incentives should be given to farmers to encourage them. The educational sector should be given strict attention in areas of facilities and structures, the teaching profession should be made attractive given that teachers are paid handsomely. Local producers should be given incentives to encourage them. The checks and balance mechanism should be strengthened and put into full force to ensure projects are executed up to standard focus should be laid on exportable goods. 


  • Abdullahi H. (MRS.) (2008). “History and Structure of the Nigerian Economy” Publish by Department of Economics Usman Danfodiyo University, Sokoto 
  • Tadaro M.P and S.C. Smith (2009) Economic Development
  • Agba, V. A (1994) Principles of Macroeconomics
  • UN Millennium Project (2005). A practical plan to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals
  • UNDP, (2010). Human Development Report in Nigeria 2008-2009, Achieving Growth with Equity United Nations Development Programme UNDP, (1999). Human development report, Nigeria

How to check 2019 JAMB UTME Result online

The Joint Admission Matriculation Board (JAMB) recently released the results for 2019 UTME, students were only able to check the results via their SMS platform.

How to check UTME result via text message

Send RESULT to 55019

Good news for those who haven’t been able to check theirs, the Portal for result check has been activated, as JAMB is currently uploading student’s result to the portal.


  • Click Here
  • Enter your JAMB Registration Number or Email
  • Click “Check My Result”


Do you have any question? Ask!

Loom Money Nigeria is a Ponzi Scheme, Beware!

Loom Money Nigeria, is taking over social media by luring young Nigerians to participate in a pyramid scheme and invest as low as N1000 and N13,000 and get as much as 8 times the value of the investment in 48 hours.

The Loom Pyramid Scheme is not new to the world. Last month, Daily Mail UK reported that the scheme has resurfaced online all over the world, with different names such as ‘loom circle’, ‘fractal mandala’ and ‘blessing loom’. In Nigeria, its central name is Loom Money Nigeria with individuals creating their own WhatsApp groups such as Preye Loom, Catherine Loom among others.

How Loom Works In Nigeria?

According to one of the WhatsApp groups, the Loom scheme pyramid level is in four places and represented by colours – Purple, Blue, Orange and Red.

“Each time 8 people join the group, the person in the centre (usually on the red spot) gets the target amount which is N16,000 and after investing N2,000 leaves the spot for the next person.

“The Loom would then be split into 2 groups, the top half and the bottom half each becomes new groups and everyone moves into the next level.

“Which means those people that were in purple move to blue, those in the blue move to orange, and those in the orange move to red (the final stage and the cashing out stage).”

“Loom Money Nigeria promises a staggering easy cash reward of N104,000 for paying N13,000 or N2,000 for N16,000,” the Facebook post reads with a link to a closed WhatsApp group.

How Loom works

Why It Is Dangerous

Loom has no major promoter and operate on the social media via closed groups on Facebook and WhatsApp. Its system is also porous as anybody can create a group either on Facebook or WhatsApp, lure people to pay and shut them out afterwards.

In most instances, the Loom promoter is the only Admin and make judgement on the outcome of the pyramid structure.

Also there is clear cut defined terms and conditions – the only known condition is for people to bring in cash and well as eight other contributors before cash out.

How is it illegal?

Any organisation and financial scheme without necessary regulatory approval is illegal and can be sanctioned by the government in Nigeria.

According to the SEC in Nigeria, Ponzi Scheme includes unregistered investments, unlicensed sellers, secretive and complex strategies.

Last year, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) cautioned the citizens to desist from investing their money in Ponzi schemes that are proposing return levels that are unreasonably high.

Source: NetDivo



Poverty is a global phenomenon, which affects continents, nations and peoples differently. It afflicts people in various depths and levels, at different times and phases of existence. There is no nation that absolutely free from poverty. The main difference is the intensity and prevalence of this malaise. The Central Bank of Nigeria (1999:1) views poverty as “A state where an individual is not able to cater adequately for his or her basic needs of food, clothing and shelter, is unable to meet social and economic obligations, lacks gainful employment, skills, assets and self-esteem; and has limited access to social and economic infrastructure such as education, health, potable water, and sanitation, and consequently, has limited chance of advancing his or her welfare to the limit of his or her capabilities”. The World Bank (2000:10) utilized inductive approaches to uncover various dimensions of poverty such as well-being, psychological, basic infrastructure, illness and assets. One of such definitions is “the lack of what is necessary for material well-being-especially food, but also housing, land and other assets. In other words, poverty is the lack of multiple resources that leads to hunger and physical deprivation”. 

The World Bank and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)’s 2002, Human Development Index (HDI) of 0.461 indicates the deplorable state of the nation’s level of poverty and low human development. This is in spite of the fact that the country is richly endowed with all kinds of water, agricultural and mineral resources. Nigeria’s proportion of the poor has doubled over the last two decades, during which time the country received over $300 billion in oil and gas revenue. However, the above scenario has persisted due to the Nigerian Government, be it military or civilian, has not really strived to achieve their various poverty alleviation programmes. Though successive governments have tried to address the issue of poverty as captured above, the effect of the strategies and programmes has been that of mixed feelings. The question bothering a great number of Nigerians are: 

  • 1. If so many efforts have been made towards reducing poverty in Nigeria, why is poverty the increase? 
  • 2. What is the effect of the increasing poverty rate on the nation’s economy? 
  • 3. Are there better ways or strategies in implementing poverty reduction programmes to make them more effectively? 


Poverty either as a plague or cause of other species under development ailments afflicts Nigeria as it does other Nations of the world. The high level of prevalence in the country, which has attained an endemic nature, is becoming worrisome. Poverty has made Nigeria to attain an unenviable status such that no government (no matter the level), organization, community, clan or family can survive effectively without introducing one kind of poverty reduction programme or the other. This problem is essentially not that of programme introduction but the effectiveness of such programme and strategies so adopted in poverty reduction efforts. This study is, therefore, an attempt at evaluating the effectiveness of poverty education efforts in Nigeria, especially in relation to the strategy formulation, implementation and utilization of resources (both human and material). 


Based on its multi-dimensional nature different criteria, has been used in attempts to defining poverty. Narayan and Petesch (2002:10) succinctly posit that poverty also may look quite different, seen through the eyes of a poor man or woman.  Narayan (2000:03) captured the definition from the point of view of the poor in different countries in the following perspectives: 

“Poverty is humiliation, the sense of being dependent and of being forced to accept rudeness, insults, and indifference when we seek help”. 

Another of such views of the poor is that expressed by a poor man in Kenya in 1997 thus: 

“Don’t ask me what poverty is because you have met it outside my house. Look at the house and count the number of holes. Look at my utensils and the clothes that I am wearing. Look at everything and write what you see. What you see is poverty”. 

The above reflect just descriptions of a few of the various perception of poverty at least from the poor. Poverty could denote a state of deprivation as was captured by Nigeria’s Federal Ministry of Economic Co-operation and development (1992:3) as “not having enough to eat, a high rate of infant mortality, a low life expectancy, low educational opportunities, poor water, inadequate health care, unfit housing and a lack of active participation in the decision making process”. It could also denote “absence or lack of basic necessities of life” or “lack of command over basic consumption needs such as food, clothing and shelter”, glaring defects in the economy, etc as stated by Aluko (1975). 

World Bank (1999:10) states that “participatory studies have cumulatively shown that the poor also experience and understand their poverty in terms of a qualities such as insecurity, lack of dignity and status or a lack of power or opportunity” These qualities characteristics of poverty differ markedly by social group and by geographical and political-economic contexts. Material well being is always relative. While some perceive it in terms of ability to meet basic needs such as the provision of three square meals daily, as in the cases above, few perceive it from ability to educate one’s children, provide clothing for the family and relatively comfortable shelter; yet some perceive it from the ability to respond to emergencies by falling back on one’s savings. The lack of these things is ordinarily perceived as ill-being and by extension, poverty. According to OECD (2000:30) “economic capability means the ability to each an income, to consume and to have assets, which are all key to food security, material well being and social status. These aspects are often raised by poor people, along with secure access to productive financial and physical resources: land, implements and animals forests and fishing, waters, credit and decent employment”. 

Poverty can be categorized as either relative or absolute on one hand, while on another, it can be classified as permanent or transient. Aliyu (2003:2) explained absolute poverty to be “the condition where an individual or group of people are unable to satisfy their basic requirement for human survival in terms of education, health, housing, feeding, employment, transportation, etc.” corroborating the above meaning of absolute poverty, Aboyade (1987:7) defined it thus: “the insufficient or total lack of necessities and facilities like food, housing, medical care, education, social and environmental service, consumer goods, recreational opportunities, neighbourhood amenities and transport facilities”. It is a basic fact that what is considered poverty level in one country or community may well be the height of well-being in another. This, therefore, infers that poverty may be seen in relative terms. Relative poverty, according to Aliyu (2003:2) “is a situation where an individual or group of people can be said to have access to his or her basic needs but is comparatively poor among persons or the generality of the community”. Lending credence to the fact that poverty may be more of a relative concept, Aboyaded (1987:7) stated vividly that relative poverty occurs when “people are poverty-stricken when their income, even if adequate for survival, fall radically behind that of the community average, they cannot have what the larger community regard as the minimum necessary for decency, and they cannot wholly escape therefore the judgment of the larger community that they are indecent. They are degraded, for, in the literal sense, they live outside the grades or categories, which the community regards as acceptable. 

Poverty may be viewed from the dimension of permanency or transience. This dimension differentiates poverty based on time or duration on one hand and distribution as to widespread, individual or concentrated on the other hand. According to Aliyu (2003:2-3) several types of poverty may be distinguished depending on such factors as time or duration (long or short-term or cyclical) if poverty is widespread throughout a population, but the occurrence itself is of limited duration and distribution (widespread, concentrated permanent insufficiency of means of secure basic needs. The condition may be so general as to describe the average level of life in society or it may be concentrated in relatively large groups in an otherwise prosperous society.  

Table 0.1 poverty incidence by states including the federal capital territory (1983-2006)  

  STATE  1983 1985 1996 2006 
Abia  14.4 33.1 49.9 56.2 
Adamawa 33.4 47.2 44.1 65.5 
Akwa ibom 10.2 41.9 45.5 66.9 
Anambra 12.8 37.7 32.3 51.0 
Bauchi 46.0 68.9 68.8 83.5 
Bayalsa 7.2 44.4 43.4 44.3 
Benue 23.6 42.9 40.8 64.2 
Borno 26.4 50.1 49.7 66.9 
Cross River 10.2 41.9 45.5 66.9 
Delta  19.8 52.4 33.9 56.1 
Ebonyi  12.8 37.7 32.3 51.0 
Edo 19.8 52.4 33.9 56.1 
Ekiti 24.9 47.3 46.6 71.6 
Enugu 12.8 37.7 32.3 51.0 
Gombe 46.0 68.9 68.8 83.5 
Imo 14.4 33.1 49.9 56.2 
Jigawa 37.5 54.0 38.7 71.0 
Kaduna 44.7 58.5 32.0 67.7 
Kano 37.5 55.0 38.7 71.0 
Katsina 44.7 58.7 32.0 67.7 
Kebbi 25.4 45.8 37.9 83.6 
Kogi 33.3 39.3 60.8 75.5 
Kwara 33.3 39.3 60.8 75.5 
Lagos 26.4 43.6 48.1 83.0 
Nassarawa 49.5 49.5 50.2 62.7 
Niger  34.0 61.4 29.9 52.9 
Ogun  20.0 56.0 36.3 69.9 
Ondo 24.9 47.3 46.6 71.8 
Osun 7.8 28.3 40.7 58.7 
Oyo 7.8 28.3 40.7 58.7 
Pleateau 49.5 64.2 50.2 62.7 
Rivers 7.2 44.4 43.4 77.3 
Sokoto 25.4 45.8 37.9 83.6 
Taraba 33.4 47.2 44.1 65.5 
Yobe 26.4 50.1 49.7 66.9 
Zamfara 33.4 45.8 37.9 83.6 
F.C.T 27.6 53.0   
All Nigeria     28.1 46.3 42.7 65.6 

     Source: Federal Office of Statistics 

Table 0.1 above shows the eradication of absolute poverty is one of the central objectives of contemporary development policy. The international community’s been highlighted by the sustainable activities of the international development donors such as the United Nations, the World Bank, the International monetary fund etc. The eradication of absolute poverty is also the overriding goal of the democratic government of Nigeria. 


Statistical data from the federal office of statistics (FOS) indicates that by 1960 poverty covered about 15% of the population of Nigeria and by 1983, it grew to 28%. By 1985 the extent of poverty was about 46% then dropped to 43% by 1992. by 2006, poverty incidence in Nigeria was estimated to be about 66% in a total population of about 110 million, (table 2.2). According to the United Nations Reports (1999), Nigeria’s Human Index (HIP) was only 41.6%, which places the country among the 28 poorest nation in the world. 

Based on the data also from the FOS, the state by state poverty incidence in Nigeria between 1983 and 2006 is shown in table 2.33.0. The data clearly indicate high and varying poverty levels among the states of the federation. The data further shows that poverty in Nigeria increased sharply both 1983 and 1985 and between 1996 and 2006. Furthermore, by 1996 only 10 states have more than half of their population in poverty but by 2006 all states except Bayelsa have more than half of their population in poverty. 


There are basic factors that enable the prevalence of poverty. These basic factors, including macro-economic distortions, effects of globalization, governance, corruption, debt burden, low productivity, unemployment, high population growth rate and poor human resources development etc, may differ from country to country depending on the level of economic development. While the CBN (1999:12) group causes of poverty into two categories namely low economic growth and market imperfections, on the other hand, federal office of Statistics in its publication; socio-economic profile of Nigeria (1996:106) was definite in categorizing the causes of poverty in Nigeria into problems of access and endowment. Aliyu (2002:30) in his own contribution cited other factors as effects of globalization, governance, corruption, debt burden, low productivity, etc as causes of poverty. 

CBN (1999:13) suggested a summary of the causative factors of poverty, which tried to capture all the pertinent issues raised as the stage of economic and social development, low productivity, market imperfection, physical or environmental Degradation, structural shift in the Economy, Inadequate commitment to programme implementation, Corruption. Abdullahi Aliyu, permanent secretary in charge of the National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) in Nigeria linked political instability in Africa, illegal take over of government through a military coup, embezzlement, nepotism, looting, bribery, vote buying and abuse of office are very common. In fact, Nigeria has, in recent times, assumed an unenviable position of the most corrupt country in the world. Corruption has not only been institutionalized but also assumed a national admission. This has eaten deep into the fabrics of the society and accounts for the reason why efforts so far made for alleviating or reducing poverty has made for yielded many results as though it, the bulk of the nation’s wealth have been distributed in favour of the few privileged who continually wallow in abject poverty. 


Economic performance, as well as the standard of living of the population, is usually the general factors used as indicators of poverty. These factors combine measures of purchasing power or income or consumption with other social indices which show availability and access to education, healthcare delivery, basic infrastructure and other intensity or severity and the distribution of poverty within a population. Poverty lines according to CBN (2000:10) represents the value of basic (food and non-food) needs to be considered essential for meeting the minimum socially acceptable standard of living within a given society. Thus, any individual whose income or consumption falls below the poverty line is regarded as poor. This ordinary means that there is a minimum acceptable poverty line at which an individual’s income or consumption falls below to be classified as poor. The above reasoning thrives only when there is a generally accepted minimum standard of living or income, which is derived from concrete and stable statistical analysis. Lending credence to this assertion, the OECD (2000:34) asserts the necessity of this when it states this is necessary for monitoring the numbers as well as the proportion of poor people over time and among countries, and the depth and severity of poverty. It went further to state levels of lines for varying categories of income thus: The most common poverty lines for international comparisons are US $1 a day for low-income countries, US $2 for middle income, and US $4 for transition economies.  

Table 0.2 Living Index Indicators in Nigeria (#) 

Years Real per Capital Income (000) Real per Capital Private Consumption 
1991 13029 8.79 
1992 13628 8.17 
1993 14820 8.80 
1994 11353 7.73 
1995 11223 7.78 
1996 9753 7.07 
1997 7189 5.42 
1998 7561 5.65 
1999 7061 5.43 
2000 7248 6.65 
2001 7248 5.94 
2002 8832 5.45 
2003 9245 5.19 
2004 9882 6.78 
2005 11253 8.27 
2006 11580 11.32 

Source: FOS, Socio-Economic profile of Nigeria 2007. 

In order to permit the identification and statistical analysis of those households falling under an absolute poverty line, a narrow approach of measuring poverty based on consumption and income perhaps seems appropriate. A comprehensive approach of measuring poverty at different aggregation levels as suggested by the World Bank (2000:34) presents a comprehensive or holistic of poverty and gives clear direction as to better approaches toward poverty reduction. Such classification suggests measuring poverty at the following different levels: 

  • Single indicator: consumption 
  • Composite Indexes: Human Development Index, Human Poverty Index and Gender-Related index. 
  • Discrete indicators: Economic, Human, Soco-cultural, political and protective.  

There is a more recent approach to measuring poverty pioneered by the United Nations development programme (UNDP) to provide a composite quantitative measure of both the economic and the social indicators of human development. It is known as the Human Development Index (HDI). This combines a measure of purchasing power with measures of physical health and educational attainment to indicate progress or retrogression in human life. This approach gives comprehensive and more reliable information as the critical components of indicators of poverty are taken into consideration.  


It is apparent that poverty is an outcome of economic, social and political processes that interact with and reinforce each other in ways that can worsen or ease the deprivation poor people face every day. While national economic development process is pivoted to effective poverty reduction, poverty is an outcome more than an economic process. Nigeria’s level of revenue and endowment are in the opposite direction with her poverty level. While revenue profile of Nigeria rose from #4billion in 1975 to #26billion in 1884, and GNP per capita rose from #360 to more than $100 in the same period, the percentage of the population that was poor grew from 15% in 1960 to about its present 70%. Furthermore, according to World Bank and UNDP 2001 statistics, Nigeria which impressively ranked 6th and 7th in petroleum export and petroleum production respectively, is ranked 194th in GND per capita and is unenviably classified as the 25th poorest nation in the world. 

Although it is pertinent to note here that the level of revenue earned or resources available is quite different from economic development. The crux is the positive utilization of the said revenue or resources in an economic development process capable of impacting positively on the citizenry by improving on their standard of living and creating employment. These resources available in Nigeria include human, agricultural, petroleum, gas and solid minerals. Most developed countries are not as endowed as Nigeria, yet the leadership of this country has not been able to harness the abundant resources for the benefit of her citizenry. The statistical information contained in the table below depicts some aspects of the Nigerian economy. 

Further analysis of the economy as depicted in table 2.5 reveals that capital utilization decreased from 70.1% in 1983 to an abysmal level of 32.0% in the year 2000, the GDP followed the same pattern by falling from 9.4% in 1985 to 3.8% in 2000 while inflation rate oscillated over the corresponding period. Under the above scenario, it will be extremely difficult to have meaningful poverty reduction in Nigeria. The economic development of the nation and poverty could be viewed as two different sides of the same coin. An improvement in the economy, no doubt, will reduce the rate of poverty. On the other hand, the high incidence of poverty translates to denial of the much-required contributions to move the economy forward. Collapsing and uncompetitive industrial activities, rapid growth in unemployment, unstable interest rate, high inflation rate, are just a few features of the Nigerian environment that ought to be solved before poverty alleviation strategies can effectively work. A proper understanding of the policies and institutions that lead to sustained and sustainable economic growth is a first step in developing strategies to improve a lot of poor people. The World bank in her report on attacking poverty 200/2001 (2001:49) brought an entirely different approach to economic development and poverty by hinging growth on education in general and female literacy and girls education in particular when it holds that there is evidence that growth depends on education and life expectancy, particularly at lower incomes. For example, it has been shown that female literacy and girls education is good for overall economic growth. The relationship between poverty and economic growth is aptly put thus: the general relationship between economic growth and poverty reduction is clear. But there are also significant differences across countries and over time in how much poverty reduction occurs at a given rate of economic growth, World Bank (2001:52), according to the CBN (1999:7), “it has been generally accepted that although economic growth is a prerequisite for poverty alleviation, it is not by itself a significant condition, especially where growth is accompanied by inequity in income distribution”. All these points to the fact that with different levels of economic globally, there exist different categories of poverty and therefore require different approaches. The economic growth of nations occurs in different ways that can reduce poverty, promote gender equality and enhance viable development to either a greater or fewer degrees. This creates a link between economic growth and poverty reduction, which is usually significant. The depth and incidence of poverty tend to fall with economic growth and therefore create opportunities for poor people based on the availability of favourable condition for them to take advantage of those opportunities. 


Although analyzing each of the poverty reduction strategies in Nigeria looks idea, such exercise has been done by several studies and they seem to agree substantially on the reasons for the failure of the numerous poverty intervention measure. Jega (2003:6) was unequivocal in his agreement with problems identified by Ajakaiye (2003) as the bane of poverty alleviation or eradication programmes in Nigeria. He stated that professor Ajakaiye has identified the following problems associated with the successive poverty reduction programmes, which I wholly agree with: 

  • Policy inconsistency and poor governance
  • Ineffective targeting of the poor (leading to leakage of benefits to unintended beneficiaries).
  • Unwieldy scope of the programmes resulting in resources being thinly spread among projects. 
  • Overlapping of functions which ultimately led to institutional rivalry and conflicts. 
  • Lack of complementarities from beneficiaries 
  • Uncoordinated sectoral policy initiatives. 
  • Lack of involvement of social partners and other stakeholders in planning, implementation and education and  
  • The poor human capital development and inadequate funding. 

The presidential panel on streamlining and rationalization of poverty alleviation institutes and agencies in its main report of 1999. p.10 listed some reasons it considered most relevant that account for the failure of the wide array of Nigeria’s poverty intervention measures. The reason accord substantially to those above with the following additions: 

  • Gross mismanagement and lack of financial discipline. 
  • Poor and inconsistent funding  
  • Policy inconsistencies occasioned by frequent changes in Government and absence of in-built sustainability mechanism and Absence of a co-coordinating body necessary for effective implementation, coordination, planning, monitoring and evaluation of achievements and constraints.  

Perhaps worst of all is the administrative nightmare in terms of bureaucracies in the provision of some service such as rural credit, rural electrification, education and health. 

Even the recently established poverty reduction monitoring institution, the National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) is fraught with problems associated with the implementation as has been identified by Aliyu (2002:59). They include: 

  •  (i) Weak response and commitment of the federal ministries on the roles of members of the state coordination committee (SCC) and contributions to the SCC. 
  • (ii) Weak capacities of the state and LGA offices of the ministries in generating and processing the required data in their field operation. 
  • (iii) Weak facilities and logistical support for NAPEP to effectively monitor all poverty-related operations in the LGAs and  
  • (iv) Lack of a compendium of information on all operational NGOs sorted out by states and Local Government Areas. 


The World Bank’s opinion on sustainable poverty reduction programmes becomes most relevant for effective poverty alleviation programmes in Nigeria: Countries should invest in basic social services, promotion of efficient and sustainable distortion that prejudice the poor’s interest. To lend credence to the world Back’s opinion, the FOS (1996:124) proffers, sustainable poverty reduction anchored on three approaches: 

  • (i) Policies that promote efficient growth and which make use of the poor’s most abundant asset, labour. 
  • (ii) Public expenditure on institutions that provide equitable access to education, health care, and social-safety not for the most vulnerable groups in the society e.g old age, disable and chronically poor rural dwellers and  
  • (iii) The stable macroeconomic policy environment is also considered very imperative and vital. 

From various studies, mostly those conducted by the World Bank, it is clearly revealed that poverty reduction problems are not based on the correct identification of the poor. Worse still is that the poor hardly benefit from the programmes meant to reduce their poverty? Therefore, the poor should be involved in the design and most importantly in the implementation of any programme meant for them. 


This paperwork uses primary data for assessing the poverty level in Nigeria. About a total of forty (40) questionnaires was designed to sample peoples opinions. The questionnaire instrument has been administrated and Documentary method of data collection had also been used by the researcher. The simple percentage method of data analysis was used. Now the data which was collected for analysis could be diagrammatically explained below; 


Responses Beneficiaries  Govt. agencies  Int. organization  Local NGOs  
 No.  No.  No.  No.  
Strongly Agreed  12.5 12 30 2.5 
Agreed   10 25 15 37.5 
Disagreed  13 32.5 12.5 16 40 16 40 
Strongly Disagreed  12 30 20 22 55 21 52.5 
Total  40 100 40 100 40 100 40 100 

Source: Responses to major question on the questionnaires. 

In their responses on whether poverty reduction strategies in Nigeria have succeeded, 5 respondents or about 12.5% and 10 or about 25% beneficiaries strongly agreed and agreed respectively while 13 or about 32.5% and 12 or 30% disagreed and strongly disagreed respectively. Only 12 or about 30% and 15 or about 32.5% of respondents from government agencies strongly agreed and agreed respectively while 5 and 8 representing about 12.5% and 20% disagreed and strongly disagreed respectively. None of the respondents from the international organizations strongly agreed but only 2 or about 5% of them agreed. However, 16 respondents or about 40% respondents and 22 or about 55% respondents from the international organizations disagreed and strongly disagreed respectively. 1 or about 2.5% and 2 or about 5% of the respondent strongly agreed and agreed, while 16 and 22 respondents representing 40% and 52.5% respondents disagreed and strongly disagreed respectively from the local NGDS. 

On the whole, a total of 18 and 29 respondents strongly agreed and agreed respectively while 50 and 63 disagreed and strongly disagreed respectively. With the above assertion, a total of 47 people strongly agreed or agreed while 113 people disagreed or strongly disagreed, that is to say, that poverty reduction strategies have not helped so far in reducing poverty in Nigeria. 


Most government activities are poverty reduction based. For instance, each ministry has elements of poverty reduction embedded in their programmes/projects. Therefore, if these government ministries are empowered and are well focused, there may not have been any need to establish any special agency for poverty reduction. Poverty has various dimensions such as lack of adequate food and shelter, education and health, vulnerability to ill health, natural disasters and economic dislocation as well as lack of voice in matters concerning them. Until the adequate understanding of all the multi-dimensional nature of poverty is put into place and brought into play, all strategies may end up addressing only one dimension or, at best, some dimensions of poverty. 

To be able to effectively achieve the objective of reducing poverty to a considerable how to level, efforts or strategies formulated and directed towards poverty reduction need to be holistic in nature. Poverty issues cannot effectively be addressed in isolation of social norms, values, and customary practices at different levels of the family, community, state, region or nation. The poverty reduction institutions of the government should be seen as an integral part of agencies responsible for the realization of good governance and provision of basic social amenities, especially enhancing security and providing means of cushioning vulnerability of citizens to external and mostly uncontrollable events such as violence, economic shocks, natural disaster etc. 

In view of the reviews, surveys conducted and findings drawn from it, suggestions made by respondents and review panels, above conclusions and the need to move Nigeria forward in its poverty reduction efforts, the following recommendations are put forward. 

  • – Poverty reduction programmes should be given its pride of place through adequate budgeting and prompt releases of funds to them;
  • – Efforts should be made to effectively target the poor in all consideration and at all levels of articulation, implementation, monitoring and review of the poverty reduction strategies.  
  • – The government’s anti-corruption efforts should be stepped up and seriously upheld in dealing with matters concerning poverty reduction programmes/agencies and even beneficiaries.  
  • – The National Poverty Eradication Programme should be strengthened for its coordination and monitoring mandate; 
  • – Issues concerning inconsistency should be resolved through the approval and faithful implementation of the national policy on poverty reduction;   
  • – Government and its agencies should develop a multi-dimensional approach to poverty reduction strategies and implement along that line;  
  • – No strategies, programmes or projects on poverty reduction should be articulated and implemented without the proper consultation with the stakeholders on a bottom-up approach basis;  
  • – Everything possible and practicable should be done to bring about good governance, the sustainability of policies and programmes, and good leadership generally and specifically into poverty reduction efforts; and  
  • – A complete re-orientation package in the form of campaigns, publicity, talks and seminars should be embarked upon in order to change the attitudinal disposition of the poor towards government programmes, employment and empowerment drives etc.  


  • Central Bank of Nigeria, (1999) Nigeria’s development, Prospects: Poverty Assessment and Alleviation Study Central Bank of Nigeria Collaboration with the World  
  • Narayan, D. et al , (2000) Voices of the Poor: Can Anyone Hear Us? World Bank.  
  • United Nations Development Programme, (2001) Nigeria Human Development Report 2000/2001 Millennium Edition. UNDP Lagos. 
  • Ezejule, A.C and Ogwo, O.E. (1990) “Basic Principles in Managing Research projects Africa”. FEP Publisher Ltd, Okigwe. 
  • Joe, A.I. (1992) Fundamental Statistics for Education and the Behavioural Sciences Kraft Books Ltd Ibadan. 
  • Canagarajah, S. (1999) Poverty and Welfare in Nigeria Federal Office of Statistics and World Bank. 
  • Poverty Reduction Plan 2001 to 2004 “A Rrport of Inter-Ministerial Group of Officials, Coordinated b the Economic Policy Coordinating Committee Abija 
  • World Bank (1999), “Nigerian Consultation with the Poor”. Report of the Global Synthesis Workshop September 22-23, 1999. 
  • Federal Republic of Nigeria (2000), “Main Report by Technical Committee on the Poverty Alleviation Programmes in Nigeria. 
  • Ajakaiye, O. (2003) ‘Public Service and the Challenges of Managing Poverty Eradication in Nigeria”. Apaper Presented at the 2003 Retreat for Permanent Secretaries and Directors in the Federal Civil Service of the Federation June 18, 2003. 
  • Aliyu, A. (2002) ‘Implementation Progress Report: Background Structure, Achievements and Problems. A paper presented at a one-day special Presidential Retreat for Permanent Secretaries. 

How to reprint 2019 JAMB slip

JAMB slip 2019 reprinting has started on JAMB portal. According to JAMB, it should have started on April 2, 2019 but was postponed to April 4, 2019.

The good news is that it has started. In fact, I have already checked for many candidates.

Now, I will be showing you the procedures to check yours easily too.

  • 1. Go to the JAMB 2019 slip portal by clicking here
  • 2. Enter your registration number or email address in the space provided
  • 3. Click on “Print Examination Slip” button
  • 4. Your slip will be opened in a new tab

NOTE: Make sure you enable pop up in your browser to see your slip. 

It is as easy as that. Don’t forget to share.



Modern teaching approach (MTA), is simply described as a method of teaching which emphasizes that all instructional processes should be learner-centered, task-based, interactive, integrative, should ensure the use of authentic materials as instructional resources, inclusiveness of all categories of learners, adequate explanation of new concepts and use of assessment to give sufficient feedback to both the teachers and the learners.


In every sphere of life, ‘‘change’’ is inevitable and needful and in the farthest future the philosophy of change will continue to have its way on learning because the human society is dynamic. The method of teaching in formal classroom situation also changes. Since the pre-independence era till date, the educational curriculum in Nigeria has undergone upgrading thereby making it suitable for the current needs of the time.

The new curriculum in use was developed and geared towards producing individuals who could live effectively in the 21st century world, in line with current aims of education across the Nigeria society through value reorientation, poverty eradication, job creation, wealth-generation and empowering the people, using education as a tool. This new national curriculum was evolved to cater for these responsibilities. To achieve this, a proven systematic approach capable of meeting these objectives was also recommended. This is termed the Modern Teaching Approach.

This new approach is a deviation from the Traditional Teaching Approach (TTA) which is:

  • Teacher-centered, i.e. teacher as the authority instead of a facilitator.
  • Makes the pupil/student a passive listener.
  • Does not give room for the effective use of questioning skills.
  • Allows very little use of illustrations and examples.


This pedagogy methodology has some unique qualities. They include the following basic concepts:


All instructional processes or activities revolve around the learner. Here the teacher diminishes while the learner mostly takes the center stage. As a teacher, you are expected to begin by identifying the prior or initial ideas your pupils/students have about the topic you are about to teach. You should allow them to carry out most of the activities during the lesson. The teacher leads the pupils/students to carry out many different activities which help them to acquire all the required skills in that subject. Therefore, make your lessons learner-friendly.

Activity or Task-Based:

Modern Teaching Approach is activity or task-based. What this means is that the approach should rest heavily on activities or task during the lesson. Since the learning environment provides real-life problems, we should base instructions on concrete local activity.

This will ensure maximum learner involvement and achievement. The activities should be challenging but not too difficult considering the ability levels of the pupils/students. Give every pupil/student room to achieve or do something. For example, in English language comprehension class, pupils/students listen to teacher’s story, or answer questions asked by the teacher. This is because we learn better by ‘’doing’’.


The teacher should use strategies such as grouping that will promote interaction among learners, between learners and teacher and learners and instructional resources. For example, in a class of 40 students the teacher can organize them into eight groups of five students in a group. Each group should be required to demonstrate how to perform certain tasks. Here, the teacher is required to create opportunities for individual and group work that will enable:

  • Teacher to work with the pupils/students (i.e. pupils-teacher interaction);
  • Pupils work with other pupils (i.e. pupil-pupil interaction);
  • Pupils to work with instructional resources (i.e. pupil-material interaction).


The teacher should link the topic to be taught to other subjects’ curriculum horizontally. The teacher can link the topic of the lesson to the previous lesson taught at the lower level which the pupils/students have learned. Ensure that each lesson:

  • Includes as many components of the lesson as possible.
  • Is connected or linked to other subjects in the school curriculum apart from e.g. English studies.
  • Is connected or linked to lesson in the lower or higher class level(s).


The pupils/students in your class are different from each other in many ways. Some are slow learners and others are fast learners- individual differences.

Some are eager to read whereas others are shy.

Some may have different physical challenges such as hearing impairment (auditory problem), visual problem etc.

Your pupils are from different social and language backgrounds with different challenges. In planning your lessons, you should cater for all these categories of learners. In addition, be gender-sensitive to ensure that both males and females are carried along.

Use of Real-Life Materials:

The teacher should use authentic learning materials from the learner’s environment i.e. home, school, market, etc to illustrate your points. Examples of such materials include maps, pictures, audio tapes, real objects, decodable texts, flashcards, etc. It is a good practice to ask the pupils to bring these relevant materials that can be found in their homes or communities.

Understanding or Comprehension:

In every lesson, your aim should be to assist your pupils/students to gain clear or deep understanding of the concepts (what they are taught). Meaningful understanding occurs when the pupils understand what they have learnt to the extent that it forms part of their overall knowledge. Such level of understanding makes it possible for your learners to remember what they learned and to use the acquired knowledge as their own. When lessons are associated with daily lives, the learners will retain the new knowledge gained from the lesson better and for a longer time. For example, a reading lesson (in English studies) on “crossing the road with safety” will always be relevant to daily living.

Using assessment outcome for improving teaching and learning:

Assessment is of two types. One is the assessment you conduct as the lesson is going on. This is called “formative assessment” this is assessment for learning. The other type is the assessment that is conducted at the end of the lesson. This is called “summative assessment”. This is the assessment of learning.

In carrying out assessment as the lesson is going on (i.e. formative assessment), your interest will be on how to use the result of such assessments (called feedback) to help the pupils/students overcome any difficulties that may affect their learning of the concepts effectively. In other words, you should pay attention to and use any information from such assessment to improve your pupils learning and your teaching strategy.

You should also carry out an assessment at the end of each lesson i.e. summative assessment. This will enable you find out what your students were able to learn from the lesson or otherwise. This is important because it will help you to know whether or not your instructional objectives were achieved, to decide on what line of action to take next so as to achieve success. Finally, assessment is progressive. You should use questions, short exercises and supervision to continually evaluate the extent to which students learn the desired concepts, skills and attitude in the new topic.


This guide is designed to help you plan a lesson. The format includes all the features of a modern teaching approach as presented in the last section. We shall use a topic in English language as an example.


  • DATE: 3rd September, 2015.
  • CLASS: Indicate the class (or grade) the lesson is meant for e.g. primary 5 or J S I
  • SUBJECT: English language
  • THEME: Continuous writing
  • UNIT TOPIC: Letter writing
  • LESSON TOPIC: Informal letter
  • TIME: 8.00 – 9.20 am
  • DURATION: 80 minutes (double lessons).


These are the specific behaviours which the pupils/students are expected to demonstrate as evidence that they have learned the appropriate knowledge, skills and attitudes. For example, at the end of the lesson the pupils/students should be able to:

  • State reasons why we write letters
  • Identify informal letters
  • Mention categories of people to whom informal letters are written
  • State parts (format) of informal letters.

Instructional resources:

Make a list of the instructional resources that will be required to make your teaching interesting and effective. The materials will depend on the topic, and the nature of activities. For example, instructional resources on “informal letter” could be

  • Newspaper and magazine cutting on the topic
  • Sample letters
  • Recommended text containing informal letters


The main body of the lesson plan comprises six (6) steps that could be followed in presenting a lesson. Within each step, there are three elements that should be specified. These are:

MODE: This refers to how the activities are to be organized.

It could be whole class, in small groups, in pairs or individually.

TEACHER’S ACTIVITIES: These are the actions or behaviours which the teacher is expected to carry out during the lesson. Teacher’s activities should be limited to “guiding”, “directing”, “asking”, “leading”, “providing”, “demonstrating” etc.

PUPILS’/STUDENTS’ ACTIVITIES: For each teacher’s activity, there should be something the pupils are expected to do. The pupils/students are to carry out the activities planned by the teacher, or by themselves.

The instructional steps involved in this Modern Teaching Approach are as follows:

Step I: Identification of pupils’/students’ prior ideas about the topic (entry behavior, fact finding as hitherto used).

This is a pre-investigating stage of the lesson where through previously given assignment, questioning, reviewing past lessons or intuitive knowledge, relevant information are gathered which would interfere with the new ideas. The ideas which the pupils/students bring to the class are very important in determining what they learn or failed to learn from the lesson. Because of this, you should start each lesson by trying to identify those ideas that the children already have and brought to the class. The ideas may enhance or hinder their learning of new material. You may identify learners’ ideas by using questions, an activity, a task or short story, etc.

MODE: This may be individuals, entire class or any of the grouping forms.

Teacher’s Activities: The teacher may probe, ask questions, demonstrate, show picture, match objects, etc. The purpose of every action undertaken is to arouse the curiosity of the students towards the new idea (topic).

Students’ Activities: The students by responding to the activities of the teacher will invariably be exposed to a part or the whole of the topic of the lesson.

Step 2: Explanation/Investigation/Demonstration/Participation:

This is the most misconceived aspect of the use of MTA. Most new users of the method assume that this area is only adaptable to the mathematics and sciences. But if any teacher of other disciplines looks at it from the angle of Demonstration or Participation, he or she would find it interesting. It is the step where the lesson is practicalized, demonstration of content is involved or allowing the learner to carry out the job. You should guide the pupils/students to carry out relevant activities that will help them to gain or acquire personal experience(s) and new ideas about the topic.

MODE: This may be individuals, entire class or any of the grouping forms.

Teacher’s Activities: The teacher may carry out sample experiments alongside the students, solve sample problems, read or make corrections as students take turn to red or spell or dramatize, watch him write out the format of informal letter, etc.

Students’ Activities: The students shall, as the case may be, contribute, participate, mention, state, carry out, write down, answer questions, etc.

Step 3: Discussion:

This is the heart of the lesson. Due to the peculiarity of most of the students in our schools, it is advised that the teacher should give notes on the topics; but the notes should come after the teacher has guided the learners to summarize their observations and draw relevant conclusions from their personal experiences and ideas emanating from the activities/tasks which were carried out at the preceding stage of “activities”.

MODE: whole class/group/pair/individual

Step 4: Application/take-away knowledge/usage:

The value of the activities of new set of ideas the students have developed has to be drawn out in relation to real life. At this stage, teacher guides pupils/students to identify situations outside the classroom where the principles and/or the concepts can be applied. This includes mentioning examples and uses of the new ideas that emerged from the lesson: for example, pupils/students mention:

  • Categories of people they could write informal letters to
  • Possible content of informal letters.

The teachers should give opportunities to learners to support possible applications to the society and to them.

MODE: Group/pair/Individual

Teacher’s Role/Activities

Students’ Role/Activities

Step 5: Assessment/Evaluation:

Using appropriate techniques and instruments, the teacher evaluates the extent of attainment of the instructional objectives. This is the stage to determine the extent learning have taken place. This is the summative stage. Therefore, the teacher should evaluate the lesson based on the stated objectives.

MODE: This may be individual, entire class or any of the grouping forms.

NOTE: It is important to emphasize here that assessment should not be left entirely till the end of the lesson. There should be a “formative” process. As the lesson is going on, you should ask the pupils/students appropriate questions that would reveal whatever difficulties they have with learning what you want them to learn from the topic.

Step 6: Assignment:

In order to widen the learners’ understanding of the topic, relevant take-home assignments shall be given to them at the end of each lesson. All the pupils/students should be required to do the assignments which the teacher would mark and discuss in class. Assignments for students is not to go and copy note, but to investigate further on the topic, next topic, carry out similar experiments, read certain passages, bring some materials to class or set the laboratories/workshops/studios according to specifications.


This refers to texts or sources of materials employed by the teacher while teaching the topic. References are cited to buttress authenticity of information used.

Download: NOUN 2019 Graduation List; PDF & Excel

Find below, Graduating list for National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) 2019.


Download and Share



Election Officials and their Duties

Election officials are persons engaged by the Electoral Commission to directly handle the conduct and or supervision of elections.

Their engagement may be full time or ad-hoc.

Below are brief descriptions of their functions as well as specific duties:

1Chief Electoral CommissionerHe collates the results from the states within the federation in the presidential election and is the Returning Officer for that election. He is the chairman of the Commission.
2Senatorial district collation officerCollates results from all the LGAs within a Senatorial District. He is also the Senatorial District Returning Officer
3Federal Constituency Collation OfficerCollates and declares the scores of the candidates and declares the winner in an election in a particular constituency.
Decides any question arising from or relating to unmarked ballots, rejected ballots, declaration of scores of candidates and the return of a candidate.
4Returning Officers
5State Collation OfficerCollates results from all LGAs within a state in the presidential and governorship elections. He is the Returning Officer for the governorship election.
6State Constituency Collation OfficerCollates results from all the RA/LGAs within a state constituency for the State Assembly election.
7LGA Collation OfficerCollates results from the various registration areas/ wards for the area councils, state assembly, governorship, national Assembly and presidential elections.
8Registration Area Collation officer.Collates results from polling stations within a ward.
9Supervisory Presiding Officer (SPO)*Supervises the arrangements for the conduct of the poll in a cluster of the polling stations.
*Assists in the training of the presiding officers, poll orderlies under his supervision.
Ensures that all sensitive and non-sensitive election materials are available at the assigned polling stations in the right quantities at the right time.
*Regularly visit the assigned polling stations to attend to problems during the period of the elections.
*Ensures that the results of the poll for the assigned polling stations are delivered to the collation officer by the presiding officer.
*Ensure that all election materials returned to him are submitted to the Electoral Officer immediately after the elections.
*Liaise with the security agents to ensure maintenance of law and order within the assigned polling stations
10Presiding Officer*Takes charge of all proceedings at the polling station on the election day.
*Takes delivery of and inspect all materials for the election from the SPO.
*Be at the polling station early on election day to set up the station.
*supervises the poll orderlies assigned to the polling station.
*Stamp, sign and issue ballot papers to eligible voters.
*Inform voters of the proper way to mark and fold the ballot paper(s)
*Post the result of the polls using the poster EC60E at the polling station.
*Submit the result of the poll to the RA collation officer.
*Return all election materials to the SPO for delivery to the Electoral Officer after the election.
*Report any security incident to the security agents at the polling station and where necessary, invite the police or security agents to maintain order.

Collection of rare pictures

WARNING: The following post contains images that may be disturbing to some readers.

Dorothy Counts – the first black girl to attend an all-white school in the US, being teased and taunted by her peers at Charlotte’s Harry Harding High School, 1957.

Dorothy Counts - first black girl in all-whites school
Dorothy Counts – first black girl in all-whites school

Harold Whittles Hearing Sound For The First Time, 1974.

Harold Whittles Hearing Sound For The First Time, 1974.
Harold Whittles Hearing Sound For The First Time, 1974.

Job hunting in the 1930’s.

Job hunting in the 1930's.
Job hunting in the 1930’s.

The first Morning After Sweden Changed From Driving On The Left Side To Driving On The Right, 1967.

Sweden Changed From Driving On The Left Side To Driving
Sweden Changed From Driving On The Left Side To Driving

Mafia boss Joe Masseria lays dead on a New York restaurant floor, 1931. Two men walked in, shot him four times in the back and once in the head. He was playing cards and died clutching the Ace of Spades, the death card.

Mafia boss Joe Masseria lays dead on a New York restaurant floor
Mafia boss Joe Masseria lays dead on a New York restaurant floor

A mother searches for her son among the returning prisoners of war, 1947.

A mother searches for her son
A mother searches for her son

A lone African-American man attends a Klan rally in Jackson, 1950. Police were present and stopped the Klan from burning the cross in the background. Perhaps that’s why the young man felt more confident on this day.

A lone African-American man attends a Klan rally in Jackson, 1950.
A lone African-American man attends a Klan rally in Jackson, 1950.

A starving boy and a missionary in Uganda, 1980. This photo was taken by Mike Wells and won World Photo Of The Year in 1980.

A starving boy and a missionary in Uganda, 1980.
A starving boy and a missionary in Uganda, 1980.

Wells felt indignant that the same publication that sat on his picture for five months without publishing it, while people were dying, entered it into a competition. He was embarrassed to win as he never entered the competition himself, and was against winning prizes with pictures of people starving to death.

 Zbigniew Religa, former Minister of Health, after a 23 hour-long (successful) heart transplant. His assistant sleeps in the corner.

Zbigniew Religa, former Minister of Health
Zbigniew Religa, former Minister of Health after surgery

Photographer Michael Davies throws hot tea into the Artic air, which freezes before it hits the ground.

Photographer Michael Davies throws hot tea into the Artic air
Photographer Michael Davies throws hot tea into the Artic air

Zanjeer the dog saved thousands of lives during Mumbai serial blasts in March 1993. He detected more than 3000 kgs of explosives, 600 detonators, 249 hand grenades and 6406 rounds of live ammunition. He was buried with full honors in 2000.

Zanjeer the dog saved thousands of lives during Mumbai serial blasts in March 1993.

A dog named “Leao” sits for a second consecutive day at the grave of her owner, who died in the disastrous landslides near Rio de Janiero in 2011.

A dog named “Leao” sits for a second consecutive day at the grave of her owner

Topsy the circus elephant, electrocuted in 1903 because she killed a circus spectator that burnt her trunk with a lit cigar.

Topsy the circus elephant, electrocuted in 1903 because she killed a circus spectator
Topsy the circus elephant, electrocuted in 1903 because she killed a circus spectator

Dr. Robert E. Cornish holding Lazarus IV, a dog he brought back from the dead after having killed him with a nitrogen gas mixture.

Dr. Robert E. Cornish holding Lazarus IV, a dog he brought back from the dead
Dr. Robert E. Cornish holding Lazarus IV, a dog he brought back from the dead

The clothes of victims killed during the Rwandan genocide are laid out on benches in the Nyamata Church in Rwanda. 800,000 Rwandans were killed in the space of 100 days.

The clothes of victims killed during the Rwandan genocide are laid out on benches
The clothes of victims killed during the Rwandan genocide are laid out on benches

Civil War Veteran Jacob C. Miller photographed around 1913. He lived with an open bullet wound in his forehead for many years with the last pieces of lead dropping out 31 years after he was shot.

Civil War Veteran Jacob C. Miller
Civil War Veteran Jacob C. Miller, He lived with an open bullet wound in his forehead for many years

Major Erik Bonde smokes a cigarette after being shot twice in Congo, 1961.

Major Erik Bonde smokes a cigarette
Major Erik Bonde smokes a cigarette

Mike, the headless chicken who lived for 18 months before suffocating to death.

Mike, the headless chicken
Mike, the headless chicken lived for 18 months

Quagga mare at London Zoo 1870, the only specimen photographed alive before becoming extinct. The last quagga died in captivity in 1883.

Quagga mare at London Zoo 1870
Quagga mare at London Zoo 1870

To be continued…

Nigerian Army List of Successful Candidates; DSSC and SSC

The Nigerian Army has recently released the list of Successful Candidates for Direct Short Service Commission Course 24/2019 and Short Service Combatant Course 45/2019.

Download SSC List

Download DSSC List


1. Successful candidates are to report at NDA (old site) with the following
  a. Original credentials including online print out that bears their passport photograph.
  b. Four by 5 x 7 coloured photograph in suit and in full standing position without cap/hat.
  c. Two pairs of white (unmarked) round neck vests/navy blue shorts (without stripes).
  d. Two pairs of pure white canvas/trainers (rubber type NOT acceptable).
  e. Two white bed sheets/pillow cases. 
  f. One blanket (grey or army green colour).
  g. A set of cutlery.
  h. National dress or suit and casual wears.
  i. Serving soldiers are to come along with release letters and passes from their commanders/commanding officers.

2. Successful candidates who fail to report on the stated date will forfeit their positions.

NOTE: The Nigerian Army shall not be liable for any injuries/death recorded in the course of the selection interview.

Major General Faruk Yahaya
Military Secretary (Army)
for Chief of Army Staff

Source: Nigerian Army Recruitment Portal

Quit Sitting Close To Hedgehogs

Initially, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said not to kiss or petting with your chickens; presently, the agency is forewarning against PDA with pet hedgehogs.

They might be charming – assuming thorny – yet lab tests in a continuous research announced that hedgehogs are likely the cause fault for the Multistate Salmonella outbreak.

Eleven individuals are contaminated in eight states, as per the CDC. There have been no death casualties, yet one individual has been hospitalized. The diseases began in October. Ten of the eleven contaminated patients said they had contact with hedgehog before getting being infected.

Side effects of salmonella disease are diarrhea, fever and stomach issues, which can last four to seven days. Many people recovered without treatment. Among the patients who encountered extreme ailment, the disease can, in uncommon cases, can kill if not treated instantly with antibiotics.

There are an expected 1.2 million salmonella cases in the United States every year, and different foods are said to be the cause for around 1 million of those sicknesses, as per the CDC.

Indeed, even hedgehogs that look spotless and sound can spread salmonella diseases, which appear in their droppings. You may keep their living space clean, yet the microscopic organisms can without much of a stretch spread to toys, bedding and almost anyplace they wander.

Pet specialists states that hedgehogs ought to have space to meander, or they can wind up depressed or fat, yet the CDC prescribes against giving these pets a chance to meander openly in places like the kitchen.

Cleaning their toys and supplies is likewise suggested, yet in addition do this in the kitchen, where the germs can spread.

In case you touched a hedgehog, make sure you thoroughly wash your hands later.

Your Dreams

Do you have a dream? I don’t basically mean the dream you encounter, immediately you starts sleeping. The one you enjoy like you went on your weekly Netflix Cinema… I totally mean something different. Something you might have been conversant with. Something like when on a  ‘Choosing My Career’ Online Tv Show, and a question is being chipped in. Question like;

“Barrack, where do you see yourself in the next 10-15 years?”

“I’d love to see myself in Massachusetts,  controlling the hottest  Pizza Hut in the whole of Massachusetts.”

What Happened Later?

Barrack went to Massachusetts some years later for a job interview, he was biasedly denied the job, because the boss of the firm wants a certain lady to accumulate the vacancy.

Embittered Barracks left the firm. While on his way to board the train, he met Donald, his friend in high school. Both went back to Donald’s apartment. He explained everything  to Donald. His life. Responsibilities facing him and how he want to change his life and conquer the challenges.

Donald believed his friend. He made an arrangement and acquired a spot in an Amusement Park. He knew that his mission and those who comes to the Park daily were totally different – they came to have fun, but he’s there to have their money for his services. He was down to earth. Epitome of humility. He started running out of leisure.  He employed few workers.  Not before November; Barrack has had more than three Pizza Hut in Massachusetts.

Did He Stop There?

He never believed in complacency. He wants make a change. He has a dream. He has achieved it. But should he have stopped there, after all, this one puts food on his table?

No, Barrack knew the world is never a bed of roses, but war-front. He fought daily. Got connected to a man that owns a basketball stadium. He worked his way and was favored. He got a spot and was authorized to be the only Pizza-man there. One. Two. Three, and Barrack went boom. He appears on many Tv Shows. Runs a program.

Barrack knew he has a dream. He didn’t go telling Mom nor Pop. He told himself and worked towards it, thus achieving it. Even on achieving it, he didn’t stop, and so you are to follow his footsteps and jump the pothole of complacency. Don’t give up. Never think you’ve got no dreams and most especially, your choice on friends selection determines what might happen to your dream, so… choose wisely.

What You Don’t Know About Lung Cancer.

You presumably realize that smoking causes lung cancer. You additionally may realize that lung cancer can be fatal. Truth be told, it’s the No. 1 reason for cancer death for both male and female. It kills bigger number of Americans than colon, breast and prostate cancer included.

Below are some facts you definitely don’t know about Lung Cancer.

  • Lung malignant growth rates are going down.

The first fact seems to be a great news Fewer individuals today are getting lung cancer. These days, people smoke less than before. Be that as it may, you need quit smoking for many years before your risk reduces. People who are 55 to 80 years of age who were substantial smokers should keep on getting lung cancer screenings for not less than 15 years they ceased smoking.

  • Substantial smoking is estimated in pack years.

Your doctor may need you to have a lung cancer screening test called a CT Scan, if you are a chain-smoker. The manner in which doctors determine a chain-smoke is by pack years. In the event that you smoke one pack of cigarettes consistently for one year, you have one pack year of smoking.

a pack multi day for a long time would be 30 pack years. Individuals who’ve smoked that much have the most elevated danger of lung cancer. Yet, notwithstanding smoking once in a while or smoking a couple of cigarettes daily builds your risk of getting lung cancer.

  • Nonsmokers likewise get lung cancer.

In spite of the fact that 9 out of 10 individuals who get lung cancer are smokers, there are different causes. These incorporate used smoke, air contamination, radon gas, asbestos presentation, and diesel exhaust. Truth be told, simply tallying the nonsmokers who pass on from lung malignant growth still puts lung disease among the best 10 reasons for death from disease.

  • Silent but deadly – Radon Gas.

After smoking, the following most basic reason for lung cancer isn’t passive smoke. It’s not air contamination, either. It’s radon gas.

Radon gas has no smell, color or taste. It’s a normally happening gas that originates from radioactive movement in soil and rock. That is the reason detectors more often discover it in the basements. Around one of each 15 houses has large amounts of radon. In the event that you have not had your home tested yet, this is the ideal opportunity.

  • One kind of lung malignant growth has a high survival rate.

There are three kinds of lung cancer. Small cell and non-small cell are the most widely recognized. The survival rate for each of them is totally low. Be that as it may, a third sort has a decent survival rate. It’s called lung carcinoid tumor. This kind of lung cancer makes up under 5% of all lung cancer.

Carcinoid lung cancer develops gradually. It seldomly spreads outside the lung. Five-year survival is high.

Huawei To Unveil Foldable 5G Phone On February

Huawei’s CEO affirmed that its foldable 5G phone will be unveiled in February.

Richard Yu, the manager, declared the dispatch in the closing moment of the pre-MWC 2019 briefing in Beijing.

“We anticipate seeing you in Barcelona in February, where we will dispatch the world’s first 5G cell phone with foldable screen,” he said.

Mr. Yu said the gadget will keep running on Huawei’s Kirin 980 processor (additionally found in its Mate 20 Pro and Honor View 20) and incorporate the new 5G-enabling Balong 5000 modem.

He recently affirmed Huawei’s 5G foldable phone at a dispatch occasion for its Mate 20 and Mate 20 Pro telephones, a report said in October, following on from gossips in April.

Samsung – which Huawei apparently would like to overwhelm as the world’s No. 1 cell phone vender before the finish of 2020 – may uncover its first foldable telephone at its February 20 unpacked occasion.